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  TRIBE 03

The main provisions of the treaty between Governor General Lord Cornwallis and the Chakma King were as follows:

>>The
East India Company recognised Jan Baksh Khan as the Raja or Sardar of the Chakmas.

>>It was agreed that the collection of revenue was the responsibility of the
Raja.

>>
The British Government would preserve the tribal autonomy and migration from the plains would be restricted.

>>
Jan Baksh Khan was bound by a treaty to maintain peace in his Zamindari (Estate).

>>
British troops would remain in the Chakma territory not to terrify the Chakmas but to protect the land from the inroads of the fierce tribes.

In 1829, Halhed, then Commissioner of Chittagong reaffirmed that Jan Baksh Khan shifted his Capital to a new place naming it Rajanagar, near present day Rangunia. After Jan Baksh's death in 1800, his son Tabbar Khan became King, but died shortly. In 1802 Tabbar Khan's younger brother Jabbar Khan became King & ruled for ten years. After Jabbar Khan's death, his son Din Mohammad Baksh Khan became the King in 1812. He ruled up to 1832. After his death in 1832 there was no male heir, and chaos followed. The government appointed Suklal Dewan as the Manager. In the meantime Rani Kalindi, widow of Din Mohammad Baksh Khan applied to the government to allow her to run the state affairs. The government accepted her application & in 1844 issued an order to that effect. In 1846 the annual revenue payable to the Company was refixed at 11,803.00Rs.

After the great Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, the British Government assumed direct control of the administration of India from the East India Company along with Chittagong Hill Tracts, which was not yet formally separated from Chittagong. But the territorial jurisdiction of the Chakma Raja was fixed by a proclamation dated 6th Shraavana 1170M.S (1763 AD) by the Company as All the hills from the Feni river to the Sangoo and from Nizampur Road in Chittagong to the hills of Kooki Raja.

After Rani Kalindi's death in 1873, her grandson Harish Chandra became the Chakma Raja and was vested with the title Roy Bahadur.

British Period
After the war with the English, the Chakmas became very weak militarily. Since then the
Kukis, who were an independent tribe, living further to the east, used to make frequent murderous raids on the British subjects in Cacher, Noakhali, Comilla and other neighbouring tracts under Rani Kalindi. They raided the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the neighbouring tracts in 1847, 1848, 1859 and 1860. As a consequence with a view to paying necessary attention to the areas of the front areas experiencing repeated raids and to protecting the people from the aggression of the independent tribes living further east but primarily to occupy the Chakma land, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal recommended the removal of the hill tracts from the regulation district and the appointment of Superintendent over the tribes.

Both these recommendations were adopted by an act XXII 1860AD which came into effect from 18 August of that year
. Thus Hill Tracts were separated from Chittagong and a superintendent was appointed for Chittagong Hill Tracts and its headquarters was established at Chandraghona. The hills in his charge were henceforth known by the name of the Hill Tracts of Chittagong. For the next few years attention was directed to the preservation of peace of the frontier. In 1869 headquarters was shifted to Rangamati. Earlier the official designation of the post of superintendent was changed to Deputy Commissioner and full control of all matters pertaining to both revenue and justice throughout the Hill Tracts was vested in his office.

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